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POLAND

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE CONTENTS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION PROGRAMMES

Students are enrolled in PA programs have successfully completed a secondary education.

All academic programs are concluded with a MA degree allowing the graduate to adopt the title of Ph.D., or Bachelorís degree, allowing the graduate to adopt MA degree.

Polish institutions of higher education offer three different options in Public Administration programs: five year Masterís degree (magister), three year Bachelorís degree (licencjat), and two year Masterís degree (magister) for professionals holding the Bachelorís degree. Students choosing the first option, usually offered by the Faculties of Law and Administration, receive the degree of Master of Administration upon successful defense of their Master theses. The Bachelorís degree program are commonly offered by private schools, but itís offered also at public (state) institutions. The two-year option is available for those individuals who completed a three-year program and want to upgrade the Bachelor degree to a Master degree.

All programs are available through intramural, extramural, as well as evening classes. Intramural classes meet five days a week and primarily enroll non-working students. Individuals holding full time jobs usually take extramural classes, which meet on weekends (Saturday and Sunday). Others take advantage of evening classes. About 80% of the students enrolled in private schools take evening or extramural classes.

That high percentage is the result of present situation of a country in transition. The effectiveness of decentralization reform in Poland depends also on high educated cadres for administration. People working for administration need to complete their qualifications and the most simply way to do it is going to paid schools.

All students in private institutions as well as those enrolled in extramural classes offered by public schools, pay tuition. Intramural classes at public universities and other public schools are free.

Data presented above prove, that when all of the Political Sciences Faculties at universities conduct intramural and extramural five years programs, both Law and PA Faculties conduct mostly extramural studies (only Lodz University lead intramural ones).

The typical situation for Polish Law and PA Faculties at universities is providing a two year MA degree programs as extramural or evening classes (for professionals wanted to complete their education). There are seven universities conducting this system. It is also popular system at Political Science Faculties, which is undertaken by five universities.

It has to be emphasized that characteristics of Polish administrative cadres education are three year Bachelorís degree programs (intramural and extramural) conducted by private (non-public) and public schools without university status.

After analyzing majors taken by students at all kind of schools, there is a conclusion that students treat public administration as a main major (46%). The result of this choice is that at some universities students graduate in a Law and PA Faculty, in a PA program with a PA major. There are also other majors taken by students like: Local Administration, Central Administration, Local Government and Local Development (see Chart 8).

There are options of taking various majors at university Political Science Faculties. Students have the choice at completing majors in: Journalism, Philosophy, Political Marketing, Political Studies, Social Politics, Social Prevention, Changes in Civilization, Local Government and Local Policy, International Issues, Education Issues and others (see Chart 9).

 The typical features of Polish private schools are a wider range of majors than offered at a university at Law and PA Faculties. Those schools due however, offer less majors than university Political Science Faculties. Programs offered are in PA Specialization, Business Administration, Local Government, Central Administration, Administration and Agricultural Advisory, Security Systems Administration, International Administration, European Integration, Administrative Law, Business Law, Law of Foreign Currency and others (see Chart 10).

Data included in charts 8, 9 and 10 show that curricula at university Law and PA Faculties have more theoretical and general character.

One asset of Polish universities is that during a two year supplement MA program students can improve their knowledge by taking part in more theoretical courses: Theory of the State and Law, Law Philosophy, Contemporary Views on Politics and Law, Civil Law and Labor Law.

The aim of private schools with a three year Bachelorís degree, is to give students more practical qualifications and to prepare them for their future profession. Most professional experts agree that the best way to prepare students, is through offering a more practical approach to Public Administration.

Close relations exist between private schools and professionals who have had successful results in offering students practical experience. For example students at Schools of Public Administration in Szczecin and Bialystok can take part in internships after each year of study.

Currently, all academic institutions (universities, schools without university status and private ones) are trying to be active in the field of public administration and issues related to the field, by organizing conferences, seminars, preparing expertís reports, opinions and data bases. Private schools are also becoming a partner for self-government in solving local problems.

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